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关于“大夫”、“郎中”的冷知识

中医有很多别称,古代有“岐黄”、“杏林”等称呼,宋代以后人们又用“大夫”、“郎中”称呼医生。“大夫”、“郎中”本义指官名,为何用来称呼医生呢?“大夫”,中国古代官职名。始于西周。当时朝中官员分卿、大夫、士三级,大夫能够世袭且有自己的封地。秦汉以后,中央要职有御史大夫,级…

关于“大夫”、“郎中”的冷知识

中医有很多别称,古代有“岐黄”、“杏林”等称呼,宋代以后人们又用“大夫”、“郎中”称呼医生。“大夫”、“郎中”本义指官名,为何用来称呼医生呢?

“大夫”,中国古代官职名。始于西周。当时朝中官员分卿、大夫、士三级,大夫能够世袭且有自己的封地。秦汉以后,中央要职有御史大夫,级别稍低的有谏议大夫、中大夫、光禄大夫等。唐宋尚有御史大夫及谏议大夫之官,至明清废。

“郎中”最初为皇帝随从的官员。战国时期开始设立,主要担任保卫、建议等职能。隋唐以后,国家实行三省六部制,各部下设司,各司长官即为“郎中”。其职能与战国秦汉有很大区别。据《明史》卷七十二《职官一》载:工部下设“营缮、虞衡、都水、屯田四清吏司,各郎中一人(正五品),员外郎一人(从五品),主事二人(从六品)”。

可见,这两个名称本来指官职,产生时间很早。那什么时候开始用“大夫”和“郎中”称呼医生的呢?医生最初的含义又是什么?

医生现泛指一切以行医为业的人,但最初却是指医科的学生,始见于《唐六典》:“医生四十人。”唐朝学堂始开医科,招收学生。宋朝医事制度和医学教育高度发展,掌管医疗事务的官员不断增多。当时,国家将翰林医官院的医官定为七级二十二种,如和安大夫、成和大夫、成全大夫、保安大夫等。由此,人们开始把医生称为“大夫”。五代以后,官职逐渐泛滥。人们为了表示对医生职业的尊敬,便称医生为“郎中”、“大夫”。在使用地域上,存在一定的差别。“大夫”一般在北方地区使用,“郎中”在南方使用得更普遍些。从这里我们也可以看出,医生这个职业在古代地位是比较高的。

了解更多和“医生”相关的冷知识!

关于“大夫”、“郎中”的冷知识

The doctor of traditional Chinese medicine has a lot of another name, ancient time has \” Qi is yellow \” , \” apricot forest \” wait for appellation, people is used again after Song Dai \” doctor \” , \” doctor \” appellation doctor. \”Doctor \” , \” doctor \” original meaning points to government-owned name, why to use appellation doctor?

\”Doctor \” , name of official position of Chinese ancient time. Only then at the Western Zhou Dynasty. The official in face is divided at that time dear, doctor, person 3 class, doctor can descendent and those who have oneself is feudal. After Qin Han, central important post has drive history doctor, level is a bit low expostulate with is discussed doctor, medium doctor, smooth salary doctor. Tang Song still has drive history doctor and expostulate with to view the doctor\’s official, abandon to bright Qing Dynasty.

\”Doctor \” it is at firstEmperorThe official of accompany. Period of the Warring States begins to establish, basically hold the position of guard, the function such as the proposal. After Sui Tang, the country executes 3 provinces the six ministries in feudal China to make, each following sets department, each director officer is namely \” doctor \” . Its function and Qin Han of the Warring States have very big distinction. According to \” bright history \” roll 72 \” duty official one \” carry: The Ministry of Works in feudal China is set \” battalion copy, Yu Heng, water, have garrison troops or peasants open up wasteland and grow food grain department of 4 quiet official, each doctor one person (5 article) , member outside Lang Yiren (from 5 article) , advocate thing 2 people (from 6 article) \” .

Visible, these two names point to official position originally, produce time early. When does that begin to use \” doctor \” and \” doctor \” of appellation doctor? What is the doctor\’s first meaning?

The doctor shows be used in a general sense all people that are course of study with practise medicine, but it is the student that points to medical courses in general however at first, only then see at \” Tang Liudian \” : \”40 people of doctor. \” Tang Chaoxue hall only then open medical courses in general, recruit a student. System of responsibility of medical service of government of the Song Dynasty and medical education height develop, the official of general affairs of control medical treatment is ceaseless grow in quantity. At that time, the cure of courtyard of official of doctor of national general member of the Imperial Academy is official for 7 class 22 kinds, be like and install a doctor, become and doctor, help sb to fulfill his wishes doctor, security personnel doctor. From this, people begins to call the doctor \” doctor \” . After the Five Dynasties, official position runs rampant gradually. People is respected to doctor occupational to express, call the doctor \” doctor \” , \” doctor \” . On use district, put in certain difference. \”Doctor \” use in northern region commonly, \”Doctor \” use some more generally in south. From here we also can see, this profession is in the doctor archaic position is taller.

Understanding more and Doctorrelevant trivia!

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