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为什么高尔夫球表面不是光滑的?

根据统计发现,一颗表面平滑的高尔夫球,经职业选手击出后,飞行距离大约只是表面有凹坑的高尔夫球的一半。这到底是什么原因导致的?

为什么高尔夫球表面不是光滑的?

为什么高尔夫球表面不像乒乓球那样是光滑的,而是凹凸不平?高尔夫球这样的表面可以使空气在球的四周产生湍流,可以避免在球后方将形成涡流,造成球速度减缓。

高尔夫球快速飞行的时候,在球的后面形成了对称的漩涡,在球附近的流体分子贴着球走一段后,就脱离球面,这种现象也被称为边界层分离。高尔夫球后面是中心压力很小的漩涡,而球前面的压力比较大,由于这个压力差,球就受到一个相对较大的阻力。

一般来说,球的飞行速度越大,边界层的分离就越早,在球的后面形成的漩涡区也就越大,这种压差所形成的阻力也越大。光滑的球由于这种边界层分离得早,形成的前后压差阻力就很大,飞行距离就大大缩短了。

而当高尔夫球有了小凹坑,飞行时小凹坑附近产生了一些小的漩涡,由于这些小漩涡的吸力,高尔夫球表面附近的流体分子被漩涡吸引,边界层的分离点就推后许多。这时,在高尔夫球后面所形成的大漩涡区便比光滑的球所形成的漩涡区小得多,从而使得前后压差所形成的阻力大为减小。

此外,小凹坑也会影响高尔夫球的升力。一个表面不平滑的回旋球,会像飞机机翼般偏折气流以产生升力。球的自旋可使球下方的气压比上方高,这种不平衡可以产生往上的推力。

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为什么高尔夫球表面不是光滑的?

Why is the surface of golf not smooth like table tennis, but bumpy? Surface like golf ball can make the air turbulent around the ball, avoid the eddy current behind the ball and cause the ball to slow down. When golf balls fly fast, symmetrical whirlpools are formed behind the balls. After the fluid molecules near the balls walk along the balls for a period, they leave the sphere. This phenomenon is also known as boundary layer separation. Behind the golf ball is a whirlpool with a small central pressure, while the pressure in front of the ball is relatively high. Because of this pressure difference, the ball is subjected to a relatively large resistance. Generally speaking, the faster the ball flies, the earlier the boundary layer separates, the larger the eddy area behind the ball, and the greater the drag caused by the pressure difference. Because of the early separation of the boundary layer, the pressure difference resistance between the front and back of the smooth sphere is very large, and the flight distance is greatly shortened. When the golf ball has small pits, there are some small eddies near the pits when flying. Because of the attraction of these small eddies, the fluid molecules near the golf ball surface are attracted by the eddies, and the separation points of the boundary layer are pushed back a lot. At this time, the large eddy area formed behind the golf ball is much smaller than that formed by the smooth ball, which greatly reduces the drag caused by the pressure difference between front and back. In addition, small pits also affect the lift of golf balls. A spinning ball with a rough surface will deflect the airflow like an airplane wing to generate lift. The spin of the ball can make the air pressure below the ball higher than that above it. This imbalance can generate upward thrust.

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