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运动冷知识:马拉松对人体会造成很大伤害

对于公众来说,马拉松已经远不止是一项运动,而逐渐成为一种争相追逐的时尚,甚至成为炫耀资本。但需要注意的是,马拉松并不适合所有人,尤其对于平时没有大量练习基础的“裸跑”者,如果疏忽大意很有可能对身体造成严重伤害。跑步有益健康跑步是人类重要的健身方式之一,也是最易实现的。大…

运动冷知识:马拉松对人体会造成很大伤害

对于公众来说,马拉松已经远不止是一项运动,而逐渐成为一种争相追逐的时尚,甚至成为炫耀资本。但需要注意的是,马拉松并不适合所有人,尤其对于平时没有大量练习基础的“裸跑”者,如果疏忽大意很有可能对身体造成严重伤害。

跑步有益健康

跑步是人类重要的健身方式之一,也是最易实现的。大量研究表明跑步对身体是有益的,可以有效降低心血管疾病、糖尿病及精神疾病的发病风险。适当适度的慢跑可以提高人体的免疫力,同时还可以放松心情,促进大脑的思维等。

但是,马拉松运动并不是简单的跑步,长距离奔跑对人体机能提出了很高的要求,征服马拉松就代表着挑战自我、超越极限、坚韧不拔、永不放弃的精神。在这些宣传口号的指引下,越来越多的人们开始报名马拉松。

马拉松对人体是有一定损害的

马拉松运动是一项极限耐力运动,对全身多个系统机能均形成挑战。有一项针对13名年龄在24~40岁之间,参与2013-2014兰州国际马拉松赛的健康志愿者的核磁共振研究表明,马拉松运动会对进行过一定训练的普通参赛者的膝关节造成一定的损害。核磁共振表明,CLT软骨厚度在赛后比赛前减低,软骨T2 值减低。

运动冷知识:马拉松对人体会造成很大伤害

核磁共振表明,CLT软骨厚度在赛后比赛前减低,软骨T2值减低

由于跑步的蹬踏动作会对膝关节软骨不同区域产生挤压。受试者在跑完马拉松后软骨都有不同程度的减薄,可能是因为跑步造成了软骨内胶原纤维排列的改变。而软骨T2值减低的主要原因是跑步造成软骨压缩并可能导致软骨胶原纤维各向异性明显变化,同时压缩使软骨内水含量减少。

除了对膝关节的影响,马拉松还可能对人体的其他系统造成影响:

肌肉系统,马拉松会对人体的肌肉系统造成一定的损害,这种损伤在没有经过强度专业训练的人身上表现的更为明显。

神经系统,大脑长时间处于相对缺氧的状态会对神经系统造成损害。

消化系统,运动后的消化系统缺血再灌注会导致大量自由基的产生,损害消化系统内壁。

呼吸系统,呼吸频率的加快会导致大量吸入空气的粉尘等颗粒。

心血管系统,马拉松运动期间,人体心脏会承受长时间的大负荷运动。

马拉松是“裸跑”者的噩

上文中提到的马拉松的损害,是针对经过训练的非专业人士,但现在越来越多的未经过训练的公众,为了赶时髦,也来参加马拉松。这就导致了一个严重的问题,绝大多数公众平时的运动量远远达不到马拉松的要求,甚至很多人还处于亚健康状态,突然进行大强度超负荷的过量运动极易造成严重的身体损害,甚至休克或猝死。

爱丁堡龙比亚大学运动与锻炼科学高级讲师Geraint Florida-James提出过一个“开窗理论(Open-window Theroy)”。即人在过量运动后会对身体或心理产生压力,这将影响身体的免疫系统。

当长时间跑步后人体免疫处于低下状态,身体面对外部感染的侵害就“大开窗户”。所以很多参加完马拉松选手都会有一点不舒服的感觉,或者感冒或者病倒,严重的甚至会出现肝肾功能障碍,会出现血尿或血便。参加1998年洛杉矶马拉松的2300名运动员在赛后病倒的约14%。

运动冷知识:马拉松对人体会造成很大伤害

2004年的北京马拉松赛,北京交通大学机电学院学生刘鸿斌和一名退休职工先后猝死;2012年的广州马拉松赛上,两名选手在赛后死亡;2014年3月举行的苏州环金鸡湖半程马拉松赛上,一名25岁女选手在比赛过程中突然晕倒,抢救无效死亡;2014年5月25日,在昆明举办的第三届高原国际半程马拉松赛上,10名参赛人员在赛中出现身体不适,其中昆明一高校在读21岁大一学生经抢救无效死亡。2015年9月13日,一名选手在参加英国东北部纽卡斯尔举行的第35届“大北跑”半程马拉松赛中死亡。

这些都是没有事先进行做好充分准备,就进行“裸跑”或者“准裸跑”的惨痛教训。所以如果参加马拉松,一定要经过系统的训练,并且一定要在身体状况非常好的情况下进行,有条件的话,请在赛前进行一次详细的心肺功能评价和心脏系统检查。

诚然,竞技体育,都会或多或少地给身体带来一些影响,何况马拉松这项极限挑战运动。但是,只要坚持合理的训练和充分的准备,调整好身体机能,完全可以抵御有可能带来的损害。而在此过程中,收获的身心方面的各项成长,将是今后生活中个人的宝贵财富。

所以,准备参加马拉松的朋友们,请重视你的身体状态,科学地进行赛前准备,达到完全能够驾驭马拉松这样一个极限运动的水平,再进行挑战。

了解更多和“马拉松”相关的冷知识!

运动冷知识:马拉松对人体会造成很大伤害

To the public, marathon is already far more than it is a motion, and the fashion that becomes a kind to contend for photograph angle gradually, become even show off capital. But those who need an attention is, marathon does not suit everybody, practice a foundation in great quantities to be being done not have at ordinary times especially ” naked run ” person, if neglectful cause serious harm very likely to the body.

Ran is healthful

Ran is one of the mankind’s important fitness way, also be the easiest implementation. A large number of research show ran is beneficial to the body, can reduce a heart and vessels effectively disease, diabetic those who reach mental disease come on risk. Canter moderately appropriately can riseHuman bodyimmune force, still can loosen the mood at the same time, promoteCerebrumthinking.

But, marathon campaign is not simple ran, sunday run runs raised very tall requirement to human performance, conquer marathon is representing a challenge ego, surmount the limit, gritty, drive that never abandons. What publicize catchword in these is how-to below, more and more people begin marathon signing up.

Marathon is to have what damage certainly to human body

Marathon campaign is motion of endurance of a limit, to the whole body many systems function all forms a challenge. One is in in the light of 13 ages 24~40 year old between, the nuclear magnetic resonance of the healthy volunteer that enlists marathon of 2013-2014 Lanzhou international considers to make clear, the knee joint of the average player that marathon athletic meeting trains certainly to undertaking causes certain harm. Nuclear magnetic resonance makes clear, CLT cartilage ply is in after contest before the match bring down, cartilage T2 is worth a bring down.

运动冷知识:马拉松对人体会造成很大伤害

Nuclear magnetic resonance makes clear, CLT cartilage ply is in after contest before the match bring down, cartilage T2 is worth a bring down

Because the pedal of ran steps an action,generation of can different to knee joint cartilage area squashs. Suffer the person that try running the cartilage after marathon has different rate decrease thin, because ran caused the change that fiber of the collagen inside cartilage arranges,the likelihood is. And the main reason of bring down of cartilage T2 value is ran cause cartilage to compress and may bring about anisotropy of cartilage collagen fiber to change apparently, compress at the same time make content of the water inside cartilage decreases.

Besides the influence to knee joint, marathon causes an effect possibly still to the other system of human body:

Muscle system, marathon can cause certain harm to the muscle system of human body, this kind of injury is in what behave on the person that did not train through intensity major more apparent.

Neurological, cerebrum is in for long relatively anoxic condition will be right neurological cause damage.

Digestion, the digestion after motion is short of blood again perfusion can be brought about in great quantities the generation of freedom radical, damage digestion wall.

Respiratory system, of ventilatory frequency accelerate the grain such as the dust that can bring about a large number of induction air.

Cardiovascular system, during marathon moves, human body heart can bear long big negative charge moves.

Marathon is ” naked run ” person shockingDream!

The harm of the marathon that mentions in above paragraphs, it is the blame major personage that trains in the light of the course, but now more and more public that train without passing, for follow the fashion, also will attend marathon. This caused a serious problem, great majority public at ordinary times motion is measured far the requirement of short of marathon, very much even person still is in inferior health, the excessive campaign that has great strength excess load suddenly causes serious body extremely easily to damage, even shock or sudden death.

Sports of college of Edinburgh Long Biya and exercise Geraint Florida-James of scientific and senior lecturer to had put forward ” theory opening a window (Open-window Theroy) ” . Namely the person will be right after excessive moves the body or psychological generation pressure, this will affect the immune system of the body.

When long immunity of body of ran later generations is in low condition, the enroach on that the body faces exterior infection ” big window ” . So a lot of attend marathon player to be able to have sick feeling, perhaps catch a cold or be laid up, can appear badly even obstacle of liver kidney function, meeting occurrence hematuria or blood. Attend 2300 athletes of los angeles marathon were 1998 after contest about 14% of be laid up.

运动冷知识:马拉松对人体会造成很大伤害

The Beijing marathon 2004, hong Bin of Liu of colleger of Electromechanical of Beijing traffic university and a retired worker early or late sudden death; On the Guangzhou marathon 2012, two players die after contest; The lake of Suzhou annulus golden pheasant that held in March 2014 half Cheng on marathon, 25 years old of female athletes faint suddenly in match process, rescue is invalid die; On May 25, 2014, the 3rd downy international that holds in Kunming half Cheng on marathon, 10 take part in the match staff appears in contest the body is unwell, among them one college is reading Kunming 21 years old big rescue of one student classics is invalid death. On September 13, 2015, a player is attending the 35th when Niukasier holds England ” big north runs ” half Cheng dies in marathon.

These are to do not have occupied and advanced travel to had made sufficient preparation, undertake ” naked run ” or ” accurate naked run ” bitter lesson. So if attend marathon, must pass systematic training, and must be below the case with body sensational state undertake, conditional word, undertake before contest evaluation of detailed heart lungs function and heart system are checked please.

Indeed, athleticsSports, can bring a few influences more or less to the body, what is more,the rather that this limit challenges marathon motion. But, want to hold to sound training and sufficient preparation only, adjust good body function, can resist completely the harm that brings likely. And the process is here medium, of the respect of body and mind of results each grow, the precious fortune that is the individual in will living henceforth.

So, preparation plays the friends of marathon, take your body condition seriously please, make scientificly prepare before contest, achieve all-round to control quite marathon the level that a such limits move, have a challenge again.

Understanding more and Marathonrelevant trivia!

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